The chemical industry is based on imported oil and phosphorites, An natural gas, sulfur and other local raw materials. High rates the petrochemistry develops, production of plastic and synthetic fibers on the basis of oil cracking especially increased. The most part of chemical plants is located in Northern Italy, but new combines of petrochemistry were constructed also in ports of the Southern Italy.
The metallurgy gravitates mainly or to ports through which import raw materials and fuel for branch, or to the large centers of mechanical engineering, i.e. to sales markets. The largest and technically to the association "Findser". Four large iron and steel works - in Genoa, Naples,, Taranto is the center of branch. The main production which goes to the world market, is a thin holodnokatany sheet steel.
The zinc-lead industry recycles imported polymetallic ores and local, arriving from fields on the island of Sardinia and in the Alps. Zinc smelting as more power-consuming industry gravitates to large thermal power plants or to large hydroelectric power stations. Lead and melting plants are located near Sardinian fields of polymetallic ores.
The leading branch of the Italian industry - mechanical engineering - gives 1/4 all productions of manufacturing industry and wins first place on number occupied (about 2 million persons). It is able to provide almost all basic needs of the country in cars.
Due to growth of mechanical engineering smelting of ferrous and non-ferrous metals increased. Ferrous metallurgy is based on import of scrap and cast iron, coke, iron ore, the alloying metals. Features of a source of raw materials affects structure and placement of the enterprises of this branch. Steel smelting much more exceeds production of cast iron. The largest combines are located in the ports of Taranto, Genoa, Naples. The enterprises of the overworking metallurgy are constructed at big engineering plants (in Milan, Turin.
The Italian chemical industry works generally at import raw materials (mainly it is oil, natural gas, phosphorites, sulfur, cellulose, but also partially uses also own stocks of chemical raw materials, first of all natural gas, pyrites, potash salts and sulfur.
Lag of agriculture in Italy considerable bigger, than in other capitalist camps. This results from the fact that in system of land tenure and land use in Italy stronger remnants of the feudal relations remained; still considerable share of agricultural production is the share of the small, shattered farms of peasants with a backward agrotechnology.
Italy very insufficiently is also unevenly provided with raw material and energy resources. Natural gas, pyrites, polymetallic ores, potash salts, cinnabar from minerals of the country (mercury ores, asbestos and some other are distinguished on the industrial or export value. The Italian manufacturing industry is based, first of all, on import raw materials.
The great value in production and export has mechanical engineering: production of cars, motor scooters (Italy – the homeland a motor scooter, bicycles, vessels. The household electric equipment and typewriters enjoy great popularity. 3/4 engineering plants are located in Northern Italy.
The power of the country is based on import oil, coke and coal, the natural gas and water resources. On the power of oil refineries Italy advances other countries of Western Europe. Though in electricity generation first place is won by combined heat and power plants, also the share of the hydroelectric power station constructed on the Alpine rivers is rather great. In the Central Italy geothermal power plants work. The first NPPs are constructed. Due to the development of electrocapacious productions power generation considerably increased.