Schopenhauer noted: "On light there are three types of the aristocracy: aristocracy of the birth and rank; monetary aristocracy and aristocracy of mind and talent. The last, actually, the most notable and eminent also admits such if only to give it time. Still Friedrich Weliki told: "Les ames privilegiees rangent a l'egal des souveraines" - "gifted people on an equal basis with monarchs", - when seemed to its gofmarshal awkward that the place at a marshall table, and to Voltaire at a table of regal persons and princes is allocated for ministers and generals.
Valuable theories (V. Ropke, Ortega-and-Gasset). The elite is the sector of society allocated with high abilities to management. The elite is result more of natural selection of persons with outstanding qualities and abilities to operate society. Formation of elite does not contradict the principles of democracy. Social equality of people has to be understood as equal opportunities.
Totalitarian elitism. Elite of the nomenclature. (M. Dzhilas, M. Voslensky). The ruling layer which is terribly interested in preservation of totalitarian system, possessing a set of privileges is in a definite time formed. Formation of shots is rigidly regulated on the basis of the principle of negative selection. - the decent, high-moral person can almost not pass through a sieve of nomenclature selection.
Ideological, information elite - the leading representatives of the humanities, educations, mass media which carry out in society function of formation of world outlooks, valuable orientations, ideas and belief of people.
The first is typical for the states with not democratic modes and is characterized by closeness, a narrow social base of formation by a circle of people, carrying out selection. It is usual for the states with low social mobility. The closed type of recruitment is historically the first therefore prevails in conservative societies.